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Reopenings are a much more difficult balancing act than closings, governors say.

Now that nearly all the states that imposed stay-at-home orders and other restrictions to fight the pandemic have begun to ease them, governors say it’s gotten more complicated than ever to try to balance all the conflicting imperatives.

“The question is, how do you toggle back and make meaningful modifications to the stay-at-home order?” Gov. Gavin Newsom of California said Sunday on CNN. “And that’s where we’re now in this point of friction and a lot of frustration.”

Mr. Newsom has allowed shops in California to offer curbside service, child care providers to reopen, and factories that make consumer products to restart. Restaurants and stores can resume allowing customers inside their premises in 22 of the state’s 58 counties, most of them rural. Some beaches, parks and trails reopened this weekend.

Like a number of other governors, Mr. Newsom, a Democrat, has seen his decisions draw criticism from many sides, as either painfully slow or recklessly fast. And the continued restrictions in much of the state are meeting with some resistance. But he said the risks of a resurgence of the virus remained too great to simply lift them all.

“The realities of previous pandemics around the globe, and those we experienced in the U.S., suggest not just second waves but potential third waves,” he said. “So one has to be very, very sober, as we move forward to this next round of reopenings.”

“This is a virus we’re still worrying a lot about,” Mr. DeWine said. “We don’t know a great deal more today than we did two months ago, three months ago.”

Speaking about the situation on Sunday, Mr. DeWine said the restaurant owners “seemed to get control of it last night — we didn’t have to issue any citations,” but that the state was “going to do whatever we have to do if these things occur across Ohio.”

On Friday, restaurants across the state will be allowed to resume service to patrons at outdoor tables.

“All of this is a work in progress,” Mr. DeWine said. “We thought it was a huge risk not to open. But we also know it’s a huge risk in opening.”

Jerome H. Powell, the chairman of the Federal Reserve, said that while he expected the U.S. economy to recover from the sharp and painful downturn brought about by the coronavirus, that process would take time — potentially until the end of 2021.

“This economy will recover; it may take a while,” Mr. Powell said in a preview of the CBS program “60 Minutes,” which is scheduled to air Sunday evening. “It may take a period of time, it could stretch through the end of next year, we don’t really know.”

Asked whether the economy could recover without an effective vaccine, Mr. Powell suggested that it could make a start, but not get all the way there.

“Assuming that there’s not a second wave of the coronavirus, I think you’ll see the economy recover steadily through the second half of this year,” he said. “For the economy to fully recover, people will have to be fully confident, and that may have to await the arrival of a vaccine.”

Former President Barack Obama delivered two virtual commencement addresses this weekend, mixing advice to graduates with criticism of the United States’ response to the coronavirus pandemic.

“More than anything, this pandemic has fully, finally torn back the curtain on the idea that so many of the folks in charge know what they’re doing,” he said on Saturday in the first address streamed online. “A lot of them aren’t even pretending to be in charge.”

The speeches came as more than two-thirds of states have significantly relaxed restrictions, leaving the nation at a delicate moment.

With states scrambling to pay unemployment claims, a vast attack that flooded unemployment agencies with fraudulent claims appears to have siphoned millions of dollars. Secret Service investigators said they had information implicating a Nigerian fraud ring that filed claims on behalf of people who in many cases had not lost their jobs.

As experts continue to warn that testing needs to be more widely available, the Food and Drug Administration on Saturday granted emergency clearance for a coronavirus testing kit that will enable people to take a nasal sample at home and send it to a laboratory. It was the F.D.A.’s second such approval.

The science is preliminary, because the coronavirus remains poorly understood. But researchers are finding reason to look closely.

Said Dr. Abdul El-Sayed, an epidemiologist and Detroit’s former health director: “The system has allowed, basically, low-income people and people of color to have to breathe the pollution.”

A major question on the minds of many parents is whether their children’s schools will reopen in the fall. So far the plans and guidelines that have emerged are a patchwork, and state leaders are divided about whether it is possible to have the schools ready in time and what it will take to do it safely.

Gov. Jared Polis of Colorado said on Sunday that starting the school year open won’t guarantee that they stay that way. “There might be times, if there’s an outbreak at a school, that it has to convert to online for a period of weeks until it’s reasonably safe to return to school,” he said on “Fox News Sunday.”

Governor Polis said his state was considering measures like staggering start times, class schedules and breaks to minimize crowds in hallways.

California will proceed slowly and methodically in allowing crowds to gather again anywhere, including schools, Gov. Gavin Newsom said on Sunday, and that may mean that some schools in the state reopen while others remain closed.

“It’s all predicated on data, on science, not just observed evidence,” he said on CNN. “Each part of California is unique.”

Both governors noted that while children are not often affected as severely by the virus as adults are, they are potential spreaders.

“This is no question from an epidemiological perspective that this is a less severe, almost infinitesimal fatality rate for kids,” Mr. Polis said. “But the thing is, kids live with parents, they live with grandparents, kids are around teachers, so that’s where it gets a little bit more complicated.”

And spreading isn’t the only serious concern. A rare and baffling inflammatory syndrome, possibly linked to Covid-19, that has affected several hundred children across the country was also on officials’ minds.

Health issues that affect minority groups are making the pandemic worse, Azar says.

Alex M. Azar II, the secretary of health and human services, suggested in televised remarks on Sunday that the high death toll from Covid-19 in the United States, compared with other nations, was due at least in part to the prevalence of underlying health issues in minority communities.

“Unfortunately, the American population is very diverse, and it is a population with significant unhealthy co-morbidities that do make many individuals in our communities, in particular African-American minority communities, particularly at risk,” Mr. Azar said on the CNN program “State of the Union,” adding, “That is an unfortunate legacy of our health care system that we certainly do need to address.”

The host, Jake Tapper, pressed Mr. Azar on whether he was trying to place the blame for the Covid-19 pandemic on its victims. “I want to give you an opportunity to clear it up,” Mr. Tapper said, “because it sounded like you were saying that the reason that there are so many dead Americans is because we’re unhealthier than the rest of the world, and I know that’s not what you meant.”

Mr. Azar responded: “We have a significantly disproportionate burden of co-morbidities in the United States — obesity, hypertension, diabetes — these are demonstrated facts that make us at risk for any type of disease burden, of course, but that doesn’t mean it’s the fault of the American people.”

Running such a large deficit would have been politically untenable a year ago. Since the end of World War II, economists have warned that doing so would risk runaway inflation and possibly unsustainable tax increases on future generations. But now, even some of the United States’ most ardent deficit hawks have watched the debt pile up and said, “More, please.”

Economists have pressed for additional aid to small businesses, enhanced unemployment benefits for workers, and more assistance for state and local governments that have seen a steep falloff in tax revenue and have laid off one million workers.

Such spending, they say, would hasten a rebound in economic growth and help save businesses that may otherwise fail, generating a return to the economy that exceeds the relatively low future interest costs incurred by prolific borrowing.

Deficit critics still exist. Republican leaders in the Senate have cited debt concerns as a reason to move slowly on a new package of economic assistance amid the pandemic. But there is little argument among either conservative or liberal economists that the deficit needs to grow, as tax revenues fall and spending needs rise amid a pandemic that has shuttered business activity and thrown at least 20 million people out of work.

“Any sensible policy is going to have us racking up the deficit for a long time, if you can,” said Kenneth Rogoff, a Harvard economist whose work on government debt and economic growth was frequently cited by lawmakers pushing rapid deficit reduction under President Barack Obama.

“If we go up another $10 trillion,” he said, “I wouldn’t even blink at that now.”

The isolation and close quarters of life under lockdown have shifted the balance in relationships between spouses and partners, employees and bosses, children and parents, students and teachers.

Add to this list a classification of people who typically spend years fighting for resources and turf while seeking to coexist in forced proximity.

We are talking about siblings.

The new reality for brothers and sisters is that they must spend much of their time together, in the absence of friends, school peers or teammates.

Parents say that long days at home are peppered with arguments, but it isn’t just that. Plenty of families are also noticing a positive development on the new home front: the redefining and even deepening of sibling relationships.

Medical workers have been celebrated for their commitment to treating coronavirus patients. But even as applause to honor them swells nightly from city windows, and cookies and thank-you notes arrive at hospitals, many doctors, nurses and emergency responders are battling a crushing sense of inadequacy and anxiety.

Every day, they become more susceptible to post-traumatic stress, mental health experts say. And their psychological struggles could impede their ability to continue working with the intensity and focus that their jobs require.

“Physicians are often very self-reliant and may not easily ask for help” said Dr. Chantal Brazeau, a psychiatrist at the Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. “In this time of crisis, with high workload and many uncertainties, this trait can add to the load that they carry internally.”

Driving is picking up a little. Refineries in China are buying more oil. Saudi Arabia and Russia ended their price war and slashed production, and U.S. oil companies are decommissioning rigs and shutting wells.

All of those developments helped push up oil prices modestly in recent weeks — just enough for some of the best oil wells in the United States to break even, and what may seem like a minor miracle given that the price is more than $60 above where it was about a month ago.

“May, it seems, is a month when traders can finally sit back more comfortably for a moment and take a breath,” said Bjornar Tonhaugen, the head of oil market research at Rystad Energy, a research and consulting firm. “But we warn that the second half of the year will not be met with precrisis oil prices again.”

Energy experts say that oil prices may dip again if there is another surge in coronavirus cases and deaths. Prices could also fall when tankers filled with more than 50 million barrels of crude oil from Saudi Arabia reach the United States in the next two months.

But there are signs that demand for petroleum products is beginning to rise again, especially the demand for gasoline.

Technical glitches during Advanced Placement online exams are the latest problem that high school students have confronted as they navigate testing, college applications and college visits remotely during the pandemic, adding stress to a process that is anxiety inducing even under the best of circumstances.

The College Board, a nonprofit organization that administers the A.P. exams, said that submission issues had affected under 1 percent of the roughly 2.2 million tests taken last week and that students would be able to retake the tests next month.

“We share the deep disappointment of students who were unable to complete their exam — whether for technical issues or other reasons,” Zach Goldberg, a College Board spokesman, said in a statement. “We’re working to understand these students’ unique circumstances in advance of the June makeup exams.”

The College Board said in March that it would administer digital versions of the A.P. exams, which can allow high school students to receive credit for introductory-level college courses.

In summer resort towns across the United States, livelihoods for the year are built in the 15 weeks between Memorial Day and Labor Day. It is during that time that tourists arrive to bask on the beach and gather for festivals and weddings. It is also when associated tour operators, hoteliers, innkeepers, restaurant employees and others earn the bulk of their income.

But this year, with Memorial Day — the kickoff for summer — approaching next weekend, there will be fewer guests to welcome and likely no sizable weddings or festivals to host. Business owners in resort areas, from Cape Cod, Mass., to Lake Chelan, Wash., say that as the start of summer approaches, they are facing the difficult reality that little money will be made this year.

Between canceled trips and uncertainty about how willing and able people will be to travel once shelter-in-place rules are lifted, business owners say that even if summer travel starts late, it won’t make up for losses already incurred.

For this weekend and Memorial Day weekend, “everything has been canceled and we have zero income,” said Barb Rishel, the owner of the Wellington Inn, a bed-and-breakfast in Traverse City, Mich. “It’s devastating. It’s bleak.”

Unable to travel, some turn to backyard camping.

Think s’mores, stars, the air mattress deflating with a cartoony hiss. Picture children’s faces, fire-lit and, for just another minute, little else. It could happen in farmland, suburbia or the Bronx — and it could be lovely. In lieu of summer vacation, there are also ways to take a vacation at home.

Reporting was contributed by Mike Baker, Karen Barrow, Pam Belluck, Nicholas Bogel-Burroughs, Melina Delkic, Rebecca Halleck, Jan Hoffman, Sheila Kaplan, Clifford Krauss, Michael Levenson, Tariro Mzezewa, Katherine Rosman, Andrea Salcedo, Hiroko Tabuchi and Jim Tankersley.

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